My Lit Review!

So I spent a few days working on my lit review. I was excited to find a few books that I want to buy and read over winter break about my topic. I think they will be really helpful.

Here is my completed Lit Review that I plan on using during the course of my writing process.

Literature Review – Thesis project

Melissa Libbey

This is my literature review. I have decided to look for texts and articles that chronicle the effects of an alcoholic parent on their children. Family dynamics and relationships are generally affected by an alcoholic family member. I am trying to find literature that supports that idea. Also because I am writing a creative piece I am trying to find other creative works within the same category to help me with truth telling and to find inspiration.

Hafner, Katie. “Mother Daughter Me: a Memoir.” Penguin Random House. 2013       

Synopsis:  The complex, deeply binding relationship between mothers and daughters is brought vividly to life in Katie Hafner’s remarkable memoir, an exploration of the year she and her mother, Helen, spent working through, and triumphing over, a lifetime of unresolved emotions.

Dreaming of a “year in Provence” with her mother, Katie urges Helen to move to San Francisco to live with her and Zoë, Katie’s teenage daughter. Katie and Zoë had become a mother-daughter team, strong enough, Katie thought, to absorb the arrival of a seventy-seven-year-old woman set in her ways.

Filled with fairy-tale hope that she and her mother would become friends, and that Helen would grow close to her exceptional granddaughter, Katie embarked on an experiment in intergenerational living that she would soon discover was filled with land mines: memories of her parents’ painful divorce, of her mother’s drinking, of dislocating moves back and forth across the country,  and of Katie’s own widowhood and bumpy recovery. Helen, for her part, was also holding difficult issues at bay.

How these three women from such different generations learn to navigate their challenging, turbulent, and ultimately healing journey together makes for riveting reading. By turns heartbreaking and funny—and always insightful—Katie Hafner’s brave and loving book answers questions about the universal truths of family that are central to the lives of so many.

Kurutz, Steven. “‘Mother Daughter Me’: A Feel-Good Experiment That Wasn’t” The New York Times. July 3 , 2013.

Synopsis: As Ms. Hafner chronicles in her new memoir, “Mother Daughter Me” (Random House, $26), The New York Times interviews her about what it ws like to write this memoir and what hr past was like with an alcoholic mother. She explains her experiment in mother-daughter-granddaughter bonding and how miscommunication can kick off a half-year of simmering resentments (though the tone is not comic).

Kritsberg, Wayne. “Adult Children of Alcoholics Syndrome: A Step By Step Guide To Discovery And Recovery.” Published in 1988.

Synopsis: More than 28 million Americans grew up in alcoholic families. They bear a painful legacy of confusion, fear, anger and hurt–and they are at shockingly high risk of marrying an alcoholic or becoming alcoholics themselves. In this authoritative book, Wayne Kritsberg shows how to recognize–and remedy–the long-term effects of the dysfunctional, alcoholic family. His proven techniques, based on extensive clinical experience using the Family Integration System offer REAL help and REAL hope for adult children of alcoholics–and those they love.

Dayton, Dr. Tian. “The ACoA Trauma Syndrome: What Is an ACoA?” The Huffington Post. Novemeber 19, 2012.

Synopsis: A description of a syndrome that children of alcoholics are effected by. It is described that when the child is young they suppress memories or feelings associated with the alcoholic relative. It describes how these feelings can be brought back by experiences. For example “The past we thought we’d neatly left behind once we got tall enough, old enough or smart enough intrudes onto our present and we are returned, in the blink of an eye, to childhood states of emotion and along with them floods of feelings and images that we “forgot” were there.”

Marion H. Typpo. Ph.D. “An Elephant In The Living Room – Leader’s Guide: A Leader’s Guide For Helping Children Of Alcoholics.” Hazelden Publishing, 1994

Synopsis: Professionals and other adult helpers will learn basic information in order to help children cope with an addicted parent or sibling. Offers practical guidance to education and health care professionals who help young people cope with a family member’s chemical dependency as it explains the disease of chemical dependency and the psychology of child development.

Woititz, Janet Geringer Ed.D. “Adult Children of Alcoholics” Health Communications INC. 1983

Synopsis: Janet Woititz broke new ground in our understanding of what it is to be an Adult Child of an Alcoholic. Today she re-examines the movement and its inclusion of Adult Children from various dysfunctional family backgrounds who share the same characteristics. After more than ten years of working with ACoAs she shares the recovery hints that she has found to work. Read Adult Children of Alcoholics to see where the journey began and for ideas on where to go from here.

Johnson, Jeannette L. PhD*, Leff, Michelle MD. Children of Substance Abusers: Overview of Research Findings” American Academy of Pediactrics. 1999.

Hill, Elizabeth M. Nord, Janet L. Blow, Frederic C. “Young-adult children of alcoholic parents: protective effects of positive family functioning.” British Journal of Addiction. December 1, 1992.

Abstract: The occurrence of alcoholism is clustered within families, but the detrimental effect of a positive family history may vary with the degree of family impairment involved. In this study, we assessed the effects of family history and family environment on alcohol misuse. From ongoing studies we recruited parents who had a child aged 18-30, 20 with a DSM-III-R alcohol dependence diagnosis, 20 without. The child then completed a multidimensional assessment. The young-adult participants included 20 men and 20 women (mean age=24.8). Differences by family history were restricted to substance abuse behaviors. While a high level of alcohol problems occurred in both groups, those with an alcohol-dependent parent were more likely to be heavy drinkers and showed more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Overall psychological adjustment did not differ between the groups, however. Alcohol misuse measures did correlate moderately with symptoms of poor emotional health. The most important correlates of alcohol misuse measures in this study were exposure to parental alcoholism, abusive punishment, and psychological symptoms, with some separation of effects in the two subgroups. Psychological symptoms had a stronger relationship with misuse in subjects with social-drinking parents, while abuse was more associated in the group with an alcohol-dependent parent. These results confirm the importance of environmental interactions with familial risk. A biological vulnerability from an alcohol-dependent parent was not sufficient or necessary for the participants in this study to develop alcohol dependence as a young adult, although there was an increased risk. There appear to be strong protective effects of positive family relationships on the potential negative effects of a family history of alcoholism.

Larson, Jeffry H. Reedy, Brad M. “Family Process as a Mediator of the Negative Effects of Parental Alcoholism on Young Adult Dating Relationships.” American Journal of Family Therapy. July 1, 2004.

Abstract: The effects of parental alcoholism on young adult dating relationship quality (trust, intimacy, commitment, and satisfaction) were considered in the context of the mediating variable of family process (cohesion, conflict resolution, and family competence). A model was tested with a sample of 287 young adults (95 were adult children of alcoholics) that suggested that healthier family process mediates the negative effects of having an alcoholic parent on dating relationship quality. Structural equation modeling results showed that the model fit the data. Young adults from alcoholic families in which family process was less negatively affected by parental alcoholism were less likely to report lower dating relationship quality than those from families in which family process was more negatively affected by parental alcoholism. Parental divorce was directly related to lower relationship quality. Clinical implications for working with young adult children of alcoholics are discussed.

Veronie, Linda Fruehstorfer, David B. “Gender, Birth Order and Family Role Identification among Adult Children of Alcoholics.” Current Psychology March 1, 2001

Abstract: Much attention has been paid to the influence of family dynamics in role identification development for the children of alcoholics. This article considers the development of stable and enduring behavior traits for the child through examination of alcoholic parent(s)gender, child birth order, and child gender correlates. An examination of the main and interaction effects of child gender, gender of the alcohol parent(s), and child birth order on strength of identification with the Hero, Scapegoat, Mascot or Lost Child family roles revealed significant gender differences for the Mascot, and Lost Child roles. The presence of two alcoholic parents was significant in producing diminished strength of identification with Mascot role behaviors.

Lo, Celia C. Cheng, Tyrone C. “Onset Drinking: How It Is Related Both to Mother’s Drinking and Mother–Child Relationships.” Substance Use & Misuse. May 1, 2010

Abstract: Employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) as a sample of adolescents and their mothers, the present study connected the onset of adolescents’ drinking to certain posited risk and protective factors characterizing their families. Via event history analysis and the discrete-time method, the data analysis involved more than 6,331 pair-interview-year units. The results show that both peer influences and mother’s daily alcohol consumption enhance the risk that an adolescent aged between 10 and 14 years will begin drinking. At the same time, the quality of a mother’s relationship with her child is an important posited protective factor delaying onset drinking.

Tyrlík, Mojmír Konečný, Štšpán “Moderate Alcohol Consumption as a Mediator of Mother’s Behaviour Towards her Child.” Central European Journal of Public Health September 2011.

Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of moderate drinking on mother’s behaviour towards her child. Method: The European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) survey sample consisted of 3,569 Czech women, who were interviewed when their children were 18 months old. There were three areas related to mother child relationship investigated: hygiene, activities with the child, and the mother’s emotional relationship with the child. Besides alcohol consumption, we also evaluated the mother’s neuroticisms. Results: Our results suggest that the behaviour of moderate drinking mothers differs from the behaviour of abstaining mothers. The abstinents express more emotions for the child, they handle better the demands of maternity and pay more attention to needs for child’s educative activities. Significant differences were not noticed in the frequency of physical activities with the child (cuddling, physical playing, walks). Conclusion: Our data supports the assumption that moderate drinking of a mother is disadvantageous for the child as compared to abstinence. The abstinents display a higher level of concern about the child.

Pearson, Matthew R. D’Lima, Gabrielle M. Kelley, Michelle L. Maternal and Paternal Alcohol Misuse and Alcohol-Related Outcomes Among College Students.” Substance Use & Misuse. April 1, 2012.

Abstract: Using a large college student sample ( N == 1,095), the present study examined whether the relationship between parental alcohol abuse and offspring alcohol use varied as a function of parent and offspring gender, and whether the relationship to the non-substance-abusing mother or father buffered against the risk associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA). Among women, maternal ACOAs (i.e., the mother only was suspected of alcohol misuse) had the greatest risk of problematic alcohol consumption, whereas among men, both parent ACOAs (i.e., both parents were suspected of alcohol misuse) had the greatest risk of problematic alcohol consumption. No support was found for the buffering hypothesis. We discuss implications of our findings and future directions.

Lacy, Meagan “Portraits of Children of Alcoholics: Stories that Add Hope to Hope.” Children’s Literature in Education. October 2015.

Abstract: This literary analysis examines the emergence of children of alcoholics narratives and their growth from ‘resource’ texts to literary subgenre. While early texts offer useful information about parental alcoholism, they are also limited. Namely, they do not adequately mirror the diversity of children, families, and problems associated with parental alcoholism nor do they offer alternatives for children whose parents do not, or cannot, seek treatment for their addiction. Literature, on the other hand, in inviting what philosopher Martha Nussbaum refers to as ‘narrative play,’ can help children learn to understand and empathize with others, nourish their inner curiosity, and, most importantly, tolerate ambiguity in the face of an imperfect world. Thus, this paper presents and examines three literary narratives about children of alcoholics: Gary Paulsen’s Harris and Me (), Sherman Alexie’s The Absolutely True Diary of a Part- Time Indian (), and Tom Robbins’ B is for Beer (). By providing characters and situations with which they can identify, these stories possess potential to validate the feelings that children of alcoholics often experience. At the same time, by offering models of strength and hope, these stories can also help broaden and awaken new perspectives so that children of alcoholics might envision a different life for themselves and reject the pattern of self-victimization and the cycle of alcoholism. Humor, a dominant feature throughout all three narratives, is identified as an especially effective means of discussing this topic with younger audiences. Teachers and librarians can draw on this examination to better guide their selection of texts for young readers, especially for those who are burdened by parental addiction and/or family dysfunction.

Vaught, Emily L. Prince Wittman, Peggy A Phenomenological Study of the Occupational Choices of Individuals Who Self Identify as Adult Children of Alcoholics.” Journal of Occupational Science. Oct 2011.

Abstract: The purpose of this smallscale qualitative study was to explore the meaning to participants of their occupational choices. The participants were six adult females, not currently enrolled in college courses, who self-identifed as an adult children of alcoholics. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews which were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Following transcription, data was analyzed following standard qualitative methods of coding and thematic analysis. Four themes were found: “Limitations in Occupational Choices,” “Creating Consistency in Adulthood,” “The Devil and God,” and “I Don’t Think I’d Change It.” Implications for understanding individuals’ occupational choices, related to childhood occupational deprivation and assumption of parental roles, are identified.