All posts by nikkbah

End of the line

This will be my last blog post as  a part of the 303 course I’m taking, but that does not necessarily mean that I wont post more at a later time.
This post will be based on readings again provided by my fellow students and will be much on the same theme as I am writing my thesis on, Participatory culture.

The fist part is a video by Henry Jenkins as a part of the Big Thinkers series.
Henry explains how youth in school actually learn more from engaging in communities where they have a invested interest outside of school. He debates that for a learning environment and the educational process to be successful, you need to also engage the different interests of the youth.
Give them a sense of entitlement and validation for their work not only in school, but outside aswell, and try to bring that fruitful creativity and willingness to learn into the education.

The second part is two chapters in the book Participatory Culture in a Networked Era Henry Jenkins, Mizuko Ito, danah boyd. Chapter 4 and 5 to be exact.
These chapters delve more in-depth on the theme that Jenkins talks about in his video, how and why we should encourage digital literacies as a part of education.
I wholeheartedly agree with the notion that we need to cater education more towards youths interests then the straight forward classroom teaching.
The fact that youth learn more and faster from engaging with online communities than actual classroom education should serve as a big indicator that it is high time to make some changes.
Creating interest, building interest and molding a solid learning environment should be the next step of education. As a part of the curriculum, there should be time devoted to alternative learning methods, this is where the students can shine, and really come forth with their interests.

The second set of readings are based on the music industry and their link to social medias. As his project my fellow student is creating a work of digital art. By taking comments on Facebook from pages belonging to music bands and rearranging them into new comments. This looks to be a surreal and ironic take on the fact that band can simply pay for likes. A band might have 10000 followers, but only 1-10 comments on their posts, and barely the same number of likes. It will be interesting to look at what this “Comment Generator” will come up with.
In the article from Metalsucks.net Vince Neilstein argues that social media have actually helped musicians to get more in touch with their fans, and have created a more direct stream of revenue from fan to band.
I have to agree with this. If you like a band, you can now just look them up on Facebook, like their page and all of a sudden you are informed of concerts, releases and other events. Just like the good old mailing list.
This of course only works when you are a fan and actually like a page. Though it is evident that bands, especially niche bands, or sub-genre band can exploit this by paying to get followers. These are just empty numbers, and not actual fans that will buy their product. But in the eyes of say, a label company, all they see is that this band has a huge following, and will be worth investing in.

The last reading delves into the music journalism and how journalism as a whole has not been able to keep up with the rapidly growing digital trends. The lack of innovation for journalists has led to a “forced sellout” where they hand over their content to other medias like snapchat or instagram, in the hopes that it will peak interest, and again lead to revenue.
The writer of the article Jason Gross talks about how journalism is not wholly suited for the new medias, and how, just like news papers, music magazines are suffering from the uprise of digital medias. Free content and amateur generated reviews are moving in on their turf.
I also believe that the availability of music today has led to music journalists not being needed anymore. “Back in the day”, one would read a music magazine to get inspiration to new music to listen to, or one would go to a record shop, talk to the sellers and maybe be allowed to listen to a track or two from selected bands.
Nowadays, it takes you a single search on YouTube, Spotify or any other digital media hosting music, and there you go. You can listen to anything at any time and make up your own mind than and there instead of reading a magazine, purchasing an album and then go home to listen to it.
Music journalism is dying and the cause is the fact that they are not needed in any capacity any more. We can find and listen to anything we want, and we do not need a journalist to tell us if the music is good or bad, we can make that decision for ourselves now. There is no need for a middle man any more.

Those are my thoughts on the ideas of Jenkins and the educational environment, and the music industry moving to social media as a platform of spreading content.
Hopefully there will be more to come on this blog, but as of now, the only thing left to do is finishing up the semester and do my exams.
Thank you for reading my blog, and I`ll hope you`ll be back if and when I start up again.


My turn

This week its my turn to provide the other students with readings, so I wont be commenting on that. Rather, I will do a short post on what my thoughts for class will be, since I`m going to be in charge of parts of it, and then I`ll write a bit on what I hope to achieve, both with my masters and in class.

Firstly, my thesis will be on The silent majority and participatory culture. What I hope to achieve, my “end goal” so to speak, will be to identify reasons why people want to participate in the online discourse, how to generate an interest in participating and lastly reasons why people avoid participating.
I hope to produce something akin to a book, or a guide to participatory culture, and I think the key to success here, is to identify why and why not people want to partake in this. By reading my thesis, people would gain a greater understanding of what it is to participate and the benefits from that one can reap from this.

I will have to divide my focus into two groups, the silent majority and the vocal minority. Hopefully by identifying key reasons why people participate, I will be able to come up with a sort of guide or rule of thumb on how to increase participation. My thoughts are that this will be useful in any scenario where one is dependent on the crowd and their feedback.
I aim to look at participatory culture in a few distinct areas with a different form of participation. The ideas I have at the moment are the gaming community and specifically those who produce content made to benefit others, guides, lore, tactics on forums and bulletin boards, and those who stream or produce video content and are engaging their audience that way.
I will also look at other forms of participation, like those who produce and/or correct information on sites like Wikipedia and lastly I will look at participation and the lack thereof as a whole.

One of the biggest issues I have encountered so far will be to define participation and the quality of contributions. Do I need to split them into different categories or genre’s? Will it suffice to call something useful or useless? An example would be someone who has spent 50 hours creating a game guide for no other reason then to help others V.S. one who posts a picture of food on a website or social media and just types #dinner #food.
Creating these definitions will be a challenge, and also trying to avoid being biased when labeling contributions. We all have biases, but being aware of them and hopefully being considerate while working might help me avoid the bigger issues, or so I hope.

The second large problem I know I will encounter, is how to reach out to the silent majority!? By posting on different forums, by using amazon Turk or by actively engaging with streamers, wont I just be reaching the vocal minority? So how do I reach the counterpart then? One idea I have would be to create an anonymous questionnaire and hopefully have the faculty spread it to students at UIB, and going by unconfirmed statistics, most of the answers I get would be from the silent majority. I can also post it on open forums and take my chances that seeing who its anonymous and does not require a login or giving up credentials to answers it, I might get a few lurkers there aswell.
Who knows, and that is the hard part of trying to research the silent majority, they are silent… And therefore hard to reach, and harder to research.

I’m thinking that my research will be part case study part elimination process, by eliminating factors as I go, I hopefully will end up with a few key factors that play an important role in participating or not. These factors will then be easier to research once they are narrowed down.
One topic I will also look at, which is more theoretical and academic will be the consequences of participation.  I will use the 90–9–1 rule as a basis here. This is translated into 90% lurkers, 9% vocal but less engaged and 1% being the most vocal and those who regularly produce content.
Going by these numbers, it would mean that EVERYTHING we see online today, all the websites, all the forums, all the blogs and all the user-created content you can think of, is created by 10% of the internet users we`ve had since its origins… Digest that for a minute.
Now, imagine we could bump that number up to say 15 or even 20%. How would that change the web as we know it? We already have an incredible amount of information online, and we live in a society of total and utter information overload. What then, will be the consequences of increased participation. Would it cause a collapse, seeing how incredibly much content could be produced. Would sites like Reddit and Wikipedia soar to new heights and in turn become major online economics, like others have before them, Facebook, YouTube and Google to name a few.
Will crowdsourcing become the new way of getting things done? Crowdfunding be the new investors? If 15% of those who have access to the web gave you 0.1$ you would have 55,500,000$. That is insane, and surely more than enough money for any startup business to get on its feet.

So there you have it, that’s what I have planned for my thesis, as of now at least, and parts of what I have in mind for my session in class.
So if there are any lurkers out there, which I know there is, gimme a feedback, write me a comment, or even better, tell me why you don’t want to or like to participate!
In advance, thank you.

 


Filter bubble.

This weeks blog will be on algorithms, how they work and how they shape our movement on the web, whats available to us and how to break the cycle.
A fellow students thesis revolves around algorithms and the filter bubble, so this week, its his readings I`ve been looking into and it will be his thesis in the crosshairs in the days to come. If the readings are anything to go by, it will be a most productive session we have in store.

The term filter bubble was first coined by Eli Pariser around 2010, and here you have the Wikipedia definition of what it is;
“A filter bubble is a state of intellectual isolation[1] that can result from personalized searches when a website algorithm selectively guesses what information a user would like to see based on information about the user, such as location, past click-behavior and search history.[2][3][4] As a result, users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints, effectively isolating them in their own cultural or ideological bubbles.[5] The choices made by these algorithms are not transparent. Prime examples include Google Personalized Search results and Facebook‘s personalized news-stream. The bubble effect may have negative implications for civic discourse, according to Pariser, but contrasting views regard the effect as minimal[6] and addressable.

In the opening pages of chapter two in his book “The Filter Bubble. What the Internet is Hiding from you” Eli Pariser talks about how the news press and published journals lost their advertisement revenue due to the same content being available online. Those who used to purchase ads in newspapers now turned to websites instead. Anyone who has spent time online over the past few years will have noticed the evolution of online advertisement. At first it was “pay to be on the site”, and you got the same ads on the same pages because that’s what companies paid for. Then it evolved into more regional ads, suddenly they where in your native language, and for stores and companies in your country. This again evolved into the stage of I.P targeted commercials, where they used your I.P address to give you ads from local stores and businesses. Lastly, this again, evolved into the data mining algorithms that tailor online ads especially for you, by looking at your search history, website visits and what links you`ve clicked on other websites. Algorithms are now in charge of all online advertisement, and they are uncannily accurate.

It is hard not to leave any sort of traces behind when traversing the web, but if you manage to stay somewhat under the radar, the algorithms will have a  hard time to target you. They will instead show you commercials of interest for the populus in your general area or town instead.
Some easy steps you can do is to clear your web history, and make sure to delete cookies aswell, since this is where most of the algorithms gather their information. You can also make sure not be logged in on sites like YouTube or your google account when doing searches. This will prevent them to link and store information about you on their servers aswell as your cookies.
Something that was very popular was Ad-block extensions to your web-browsers, but websites soon learned how to block their content from being shown if you had such an extension. Sites like YouTube took this a step further and deliberately gave users with Ad-blockers the longest commercials and removed the “skip” function that commercials that last more than 30 seconds have.
Ad-blockers still work, though more and more web-sites are getting better at blocking the blocker, literally.

Pariser later talks about how the future of news online will be personally tailored, with a few major events being present and the rest being all local news, tailored to meet your specific interests and likes. The danger of having such a personalized news filter is that the odds of missing out on a major event becomes all the more present. By filtering in only a few global events, there are plenty of cases that might be ignored and left out, case that you might find interesting and of importance. The algorithms wont take this into account though, it will only report to you that which it has parameters to do. Today at least, you can get varied news by visiting the different major new sites and local sites, but when you read articles like this http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/ where a scary high amount of people state social media as their main source of news than things get complicated.

These algorithms are affecting all our lives, whether we are aware or not, and it can be an increasingly difficult task to circumvent, break or reset them.
When reading the work of Emilee Rader and Rebecca Gray on algorithmic curation in the Facebook news feed, it is apparent that we share concern. Concern at people’s ignorance at what algorithms actually produce.
The algorithms are biased, the information the filter and show you on your feed are biased and in the end, if you do not realize this, those “objective and partial” pieces of information you are given will give you a false sense of neutrality.
Knowing the information you receive is biased is one thing,  but doing something to change that is night but impossible, at least when it comes to Facebook.
There are ways to increase the amount of difference you can be shows, and that is simply by pressing like on a lot of different and unique things. The more stuff you like, the more diverse ( or not at all ) your Facebook wall will become, or at least that is the thought behind the algorithm. So keeping in mind what you give a thumbs up and not can make a big difference in the long run.

One issue what Rader and Gray points out is that in privacy settings on Facebook, you can elect who can and cannot see your posts and you have no real way of telling if someone has elected to put you on such a list. From the questionnaire they ran, they were given the result that 73% of those that answered believed that they where not shown all of their friends posts. This could be due to different reasons, like mentioned above, people electing to remove a person from viewing posts.  An issue that was also brought up from the questionnaire was the fact the some of those that answered felt that Facebook filled their wall with posts that the algorithm “thought” they would find interesting. In effect, the algorithms taking away choices from us.

My personal issue and use of algorithms.
Firstly I must say that I am a victim of these algorithms as much as the next, but I am fully aware of them, and I actually go to great lengths to throw them off-balance.
I have both  a Netflix and YouTube account, where algorithms are hard at work tailoring films, series, streamers and content just for me.
The way I break the Netflix algorithm is that I have created multiple profiles, I have my own, which I use for movies and series that I like, namely sci-fi and crime, but I have another profile that I share with my wife. On this profile, we look at series together, comedies, stand up shows and the odd documentary. I also share the Netflix account with a friends of mine, who in return, shares her ViaPlay account. We have vastly different tastes in both film and series, and by letting her use my account, she looks up stuff I would never consider. Or so I thought. It turns out, we have a few interests in common, films and series I would not have found, if not for my friend using my account.
As for YouTube, I have channels I subscribe to, I have my musicians that I look up and I have my favorite streamers. This gives me basically the same content every time I log on, my “recommended” tab is always the same. Not the same videos or songs, but the same in ways of content. Its gaming, music and british panel shows.
The way I break this cycle is that  once or twice a month, I have friends over for  a “YouTube” night.
It basically consists of my friends and I, looking up all sorts of stuff, showing each other certain gems we`ve found in the course of our browsing of YouTube. What happens it that in a week or so after my friends have been over, my “recommended” tab is full of new and unique content. Suddenly I have  a ton of new stuff to explore, or not to if I so choose, but at least I have fresh content and new stuff to view.

How do you break or interact with the algorithms affecting your time online? Please leave a comment if you have any comments or thoughts on the issue.

Until next time.


This week in science

Today my post will be on the subject of my Masters Thesis and how I aim to present it at the end of this semester. Not my full thesis, but my layout, ideas and the thoughts I`v made on how I’m going to present it once it reaches full-scale.

My topic, for those of you who are wondering, is going to be The Silent Majority.
Now what is this silent majority you say? It is the hundreds of millions of internet users, that during their time online, ever so seldom, or never participate in a productive way. When I say productive, I mean participating in online discussion on open forums, so that its available to those who would like to see it. It are those who only use instagram/twitter/pinterest/imgur to browse pictures or look up people, without engaging with the community. Perhaps some will leave a comment, but I do not count #cool as a means of participating in a productive way.

My thesis will focus on 3 main aspects ( might change ).
1. What is the Silent Majority –  how do I define it in my thesis and how do I separate meaningful participation from meaningless participation.
2. How do you reach the Silent Majority and how can you increase the “want” to participate
3. How do you increase participation in a group that avoids just that and what would it take to make this happen. Also, what would be the potential consequences of a vastly increased amount of participation in the online communities.

For the end of this semester, I will focus on the first topic, what is the Silent Majority.  I will use the introduction and the definition to build anticipation and interest in my thesis and the work I will have ahead of me.
It will be in comparison to the first chapters of a book, in where you get to know the protagonists, where they come from, and get the gist of how the plot will develop.

For my research, I will be reading on the topic of Participatory culture, since it is my goal to have the Silent Majority engage in just this. I will also look at those I call the Vocal Minority.  The group of people who actually are very active and produce not only a great deal of public content, but actively engage each other in discussion and in creating communities where they thrive.
I will look at why they are active, what they stand to gain from creating public content, i.e.g guides for computer games, learning guides on forums and/or streaming sites. The reason I will look to this group aswell, is to get a ground for comparison with my findings on the silent majority.
I feel it is of great importance to represent both sides in a matter, even though my focus will be mostly on the silent majority.

My biggest fear on this thesis is the lack of work done previously around the silent majority and participatory culture. So I will have a hard time finding relevant literature, but that will not discourage me from pursuing this topic.

A short post from me this time, but that is basically what I have to offer on the insight on my thesis at the moment. I am just in the opening phase of my writing, so there are bound to be changes along the way, but my topic will very much remain.

As always, leave a comment if you have one.


Envy

The suggested reading for this week by fellow student Anders is a chapter called Envy from the book Evil by Design, interaction design to lead us into temptation by Chris Nodder.
I’m already quite familiar with this book, since I`ve used it for both my programing courses already. So this is kind of going back to an old friend. Its been a while since those courses, but that doesn’t diminish the quality of Nodders readings.

Quite early in the chapter Nodder writes ” To use envy as a motivating force, it has to first exists.” This is a simple sentence, but it carries a lot of weight! If you look at almost every form of social media or large forums, there are tools in  place to invoke envy amongst its users. You have achievements, numbers of likes, upvotes, shares and reposts, all of these are designed to make us envious on one another. Everyone wants to at least once, be the person that receives hundreds of likes on Facebook, get thousands of hearts on twitter or instagram due to reposts or be the one that makes is from the drudge of user sub to the front page because of fake internet points ( the indigenous name for upvotes on the site Imgur ).

Enacting envy amongst its users are also to enact participation, or at least try to create the want to participate. It is a genius way of using our feelings to manipulate us into activity, and in such a way, generate more data for the sites themselves as we go.
Desire to be amongst the select few, and the envy of those that are, its is a remarkable play on feelings if you can afford to sit back and give it a critical and reflected view.
How easily manipulated we are.

Nodder writes about having people feel ownership of a product before they even buy it, or the product is finished. This is especially true in the gaming industry, where pre purchace now has become a normal thing, and those who do so will get early access to the game, or at least parts of it.  There is a lot of arguments going around about this, where most people think that this practise is ruining the gaming industry. By buying products long before they are finished, but that is a (loooong discussion) for another time.
This early access is also inciting envy, some people get to play the game you are so anxiously waiting for, so why not prepurchace it aswell so you can be a part of it also?
Even though you pay for an unfinished product, that might be cut short, be riddled with bugs and errors, and in worst case, might never be finished. Envy caused you to buy it, and in the end, you turn envious on those who didn’t buy it. It’s like a two-edged sword.

Other ways to make us envious towards each other is evident in apps like Imgur and Snapchat, who cleverly have implemented a feature called trophies, which are basically achievements in all but name. They are linked to your profile, and are open for all to see, so that you can brag, or others can spy and become envious. The trophy/achievement system is put in place to give users a sense of accomplishment, and to, as mentioned, enact envy, so that others are hopefully pushed into earning the same goals.

In some cases, you don’t even need to create envy, you can just build upon it. Nodders example here is the sale of premade and leveled up characters and accounts for the game World of Warcraft. As he writes, “[…]players who have more money then time.”
Create a shortcut and someone is bound to use it. An easy enough notion, and one that obviously works, since the sale of gaming accounts have been going on for 2 decades or more.

It’s quite clear that feelings are used to its fullest extent in having us grasping for more in our online activities, and that most people are clueless as to what extent their favorite website goes to in order to invoke these feelings.

If you happen to disagree with my comments, or if you feel I`ve missed a point, feel free to leave a remark.


My thoughts on readings provided by a fellow student.

This weeks blog will be based on a few readings provided by a fellow student of mine and his intriguing Masters Thesis on Online Commenting.

The first reading I did was, Reading the Comments : Likers, Haters, and Manipulators at the Bottom of the Web by Joseph M. Reagle.

The text starts off with an explanation on where commenting had their “origins” and what it was mostly used for back in the days when the internet made its first steps towards maturity.
What really caught my eye though is when he mentions Dunbar´s eponymous number of 150.
This is the “magic number” that signals when a community has grown to large, and the commenting that was once (possibly) insightful and productive turn into a mishmash of trolling, hate, graffiti and nonsense comments. The magic is gone from what once was a well working community.
Not only does this signify that if a community grows to large, it will almost every time turn toxic, but that to keep the “magic” of such communities, you will need to restrict the number of users or contributors in order for it not to turn out like that.
Restricting members will again alienate the very people you are trying to reach with your content. It really is a “damned if you do, damned if you dont” scenario, and I find this aspect of the different web communities incredibly interesting.

I’m relating this to my own Masters Thesis, wich will be about engaging the silent majority in participatory culture and critical thinking. What good is it to try to contribute and participate if you turn out to be locked out of all the different forums and communities, because they reached 150ish members already.
How much do you get out of trying to participate in a forum where half the posts are trolling or toxic because there are no restriction on the number of contributors?
Should there be censoring or moderation on each forum making sure that its open to all, but the trolls and toxicity are kept from the public, and who would put up with such a job? Also, wont there be a lot of personal biases or cultural biases permeating those stuck with the job of censoring? Is not the act of censoring going against all that the “free web” is supposed to be?

Having such a discussion on how to keep commenting fruitful and not hostile in the large could be very interesting, and could yield some unique views on how to achieve the one or another.

Later on Reagle writes about Dave Winer, and his idea to make commenting on blogs invisible. The idea is that once a blog post is published, you have a certain amount of time to make a comment, 1000 words/characters or shorter, but it will not become visible until after the set time has expired. So once the time is up, all comments are visible, and no further commenting is possible, and anyone that has the need to make a longer remark or would like to follow-up on another’s comment, should do so in their own blogs.
By using a “trackback” function, anyone who had someone blog about their blog would receive a notification, and they could then visit the blog and see what that person had written in response.
Allegedly this idea was put to the test, and it ended badly, with spammer and scammer making instant use of this function to bog down bloggers with unsavory content.

Another point that’s made is that one of the easiest ways of partly constricting toxicity is to do like Facebook and Google+, require users to use their full name, wich immediately removes the anonymity provided by other forums and communities. This is partly true, but as most people can attest, it does not remove trolling or toxic comments in the whole. Facebook still struggles with such comments, both in the public sphere and in closed groups.

The read ends with going back to one of the first points made, that good communities grow, and once they grow too much, the users leave because it has gone “downhill” its back to the “damned if you do, damned if you don’t” paradox.

The second reading, The Online Disinhibition Effect, John Suler.

A quick explanation, The online disinhibition effect is a term used for the phenomena of acting without or with lacking inhibitions online compared to their offline behavior.
Suler divides the Inhibitions into two categories, Benign Inhibitions – where you share your fears and emotions, or actively show kindness or go out of your way to help others, and Toxic Inhibitions – where you are hostile, hateful or visit places of perversion, crime, and violence. Activities that one would not engage in in real life.

Suler makes a point of writing about anonymity and the consequences of being “hidden” when your online. This anonymity is the biggest contributor to toxic behavior, the fact that it cannot be traced back to you ( it can, but it requires a lot of effort, and in some cases legal action) makes it incredibly easy to behave in a toxic manner.
The anonymity the screen provides, and the lack of needing to divulge ones personal information (full name and email) is providing all the right tools for anyone to become a troll or bully. There are no negative consequences to one self.

Further Suler mentions Solipsistic Introjection, in short, when you have conversations with other people in your head, projection their person into a dialogue with yourself even though they are not there. This can also happen when you talk to people online, as you write to them, and learn more about them , you assign them a face, voice, a personality and character, based on what they write to you.
In my opinion, this is blurring the lines or reality, and is leaning more towards having psychological issues then just projection a persona to the person you are writing to.
One thing is to make a reflected guess unto what personality the person has in retrospect to your writings back and forth, it is a whole other case to actually assign them all the other human characteristics.
It is almost like your creating an imaginary friend that you can talk to,  wich, in my opinion, if you do in adult age is a clear sign that you have a deep-rooted psychological issue. ( My apologies to anyone I offend with this remark )
Having fictional dialogue with a person you know, a good friend, or your partner is fine, but to attribute the same notion to a person you`ve only written to online is not.

Emily Finch is mentioned for her work with dissociative Imagination, in this context, when people see their online persona and activities as a part of a game, and not real life. They have a definite boundary between online and offline, and they separate the two.
This is a dangerous notion, because that would mean that people who has this dissociative imagination no longer think of their actions online as anything that has meaning or consequence, if it is all a game, then who does it affect when they act toxic or post something they should not.
Gamefication in everyday life may help to speed this dissociative state of mind, as more and more of everyday life in some way is beginning to seem like a game. You have achievements in apps like snapchat, or a scoring system, telling you how many points you or your friends have gathered. There are pervasive games, even further blurring the line between game and reality.

Linking this back to comments and commenting it would mean that once you are online, you are “in a game”, and as such, nothing you say or do will have any consequence for your “offline self”. Toxic or chivalrous behaviour doesn’t matter anymore, and if you “play a role” when you are online, then it is normal to experiment with said role. One day you’re a social justice warrior, the next your a toxic hater, spreading vile as you post, further down the line, you might be a white knight, trying to rid the internet of such characters as you yourself just played, by reporting toxic content, or by defending a person antagonized in a post by trolls or toxic comments.

Lastly, I was given a video to watch, and it my (not so) humble opinion, it is a nugget of gold hidden in the mud of user-generated content. It is definitively worth watching, wich is why I will not write about it. Go watch it, you`ll be better off if you do.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lvf8koqX_yE <—- glorious link.
The clip is 6 minutes long, and worth every second of it.

As always, if you agree/disagree with me, leave a comment, so that I can be super toxic and hateful, seeing as all this is just a game anyhow 😉
Honestly though, feel free to leave a comment.


Reactions to a podcast with Danah Boyd and my masters thesis idea comes to fruition.

In the podcast, Danah Boyd is being interviewed by Krista Tippett, its lasts about 1 hour and 25 minutes, and it consists mostly of Danah reminiscing about her past.
What I got out of it is more reactions to her comments and remarks about her own digital youth, and a few remarks towards her answers (or lack of) to the questions she is presented with.

This will be a very lengthy post, so I will in no way be offended if you choose to just skim through it. At least you have been warned.

Danah starts with telling about her own meeting with digital technologies, and the internet especially. Her opinion was that at the time, it was uncool to be a nerd, and that the networked social life that we today see as completely normal, and by all means needed to be cool, is completely different to what it used to be.
This is not my experience though, when I grew up, being a part of a social network online was very cool indeed, because it ment you where a part of the select few that had access to a computer and the internet. Now I grew up in the same time as Danah, though she is a few years older than me, but when we started to use the internet was most likely only distanced by a few years. I started using the internet when I was around 8 years old, that would be in 1993, so very early on, and my family got our first computer and internet connection when I was 10.
In Danah`s part of  growing up, social networks were as she says uncool, and yes, she probably started using the net a short time before me, but I think its more cultural than actual fact. As I grew up, anyone who had internet was the coolest kid in school, and the social network surrounding those kids where much more vibrant than those without.

In this section of the interview, Danah mentions her experience with chatting with a transgendered person online, and because of the anonymity provided with “hiding behind a screen” she dared to ask very personal questions. My first thought here were immediately  STRANGER DANGER! This is most likely due to my sceptical nature, and my knowledge of how  predators online work.
The scenario I saw when she was talking about this was along the lines of: “sexual predator pretends to be a trans, in order to gain the confidence of underage lesbian teens. Jerking off as they exchange deeply personal information”.
Online predation, stranger danger and the online hunting grounds were at that time totally unheard of. And since Danah mentions that she never actually met the person, who knows, most likely its was a sincere exchange, but chances are also there that it was someone exploiting a naive teen.

This leads to the next section of the interview, where Danah and Krista talks and discuss how online life is becoming more and more an amplification of everyday life. It is as if anything that you partake in, in your life, that you also bring online will be amplified in some form or fashion.
What is dangerous here is when the negative sides of everyday life permeates online and becomes amplified. Your fears especially, and the lack of understanding. Fear spreads from platform to platform, and takes on different meanings as the platform evolves. The example Danah use in the interview is the parent who were contacted by child services because her child was playing outside alone without supervision, even though the parent could see her from the window. This is though something that would never happen in Norway, as a child here, even today in 2017, you are encouraged to go outside and play, alone or with friends.
I don’t want to sound like I’m acting all high and mighty, but American culture has for a very long time now, been driven my fear mongering, so much so that its come to the scenario Danah mentions. Were kids no longer can play outside without a parent being present.
This fear of strangers, kidnappers and pedophiles apparently is so strong, that you risk losing custody of your child if you let them play outside alone.
So the critical issue here is: Why do we not have the same fear for children roaming the internet alone?

You can of course not sit behind them, watching their every move, what you can do, is teach them. The need for understanding and critical thinking when it comes to our and our children’s online presence is paramount. The internet is just like the park, potential predators lurks in corners, the difference is that in a park you can have physical supervision, online, not so much.
This is where we use our experience and teach our children to be aware of who and how they talk to others online. That anything they share, especially in the form of images and videos, can be used for other purposes then what they are intended for. I’m not saying that we should teach children to fear anyone who they meet online, but that they need to have  a healthy dose of skepticism.
This also goes into the theme of online conduct, visibility and transparency, and in the end accountability.
Now we are more in the realm of online bullying and harassment, and the fact that unless something have a direct negative consequence, the anonymity provided by the “screen barrier” can as mentioned amplify everyday life. Inconsequential bullying in the school yard can become a much more amplified and targeted activity online.

Accountability does not solely mean that blame can be put on individuals, it also means that we can hold digital medias accountable.
Danah`s example here is the #IwasShoot campaign that went on after the Ferguson incident.
The media was accused of vilifying and criminalizing teens by using the most incriminating pictures they could find. Instead of picking portraits or pictures where the victim seems happy and likable, they chose to use pictures that portrayed the victim in a negative light.
The people using the #IwasShoot uploaded two pictures of themselves, one normal where they where in a normal situation, and the other where they posed angrily, or wore clothing that made them look more or less like a criminal.
The media at that time was held accountable for their choise of the pictures they used, and that they should change their habit of using the most incriminating pictures they could find. This also reflects back to the previously mentioned fear mongering.

Further Krista and Danah talk about participatory culture, and how there is an identity shift going on in convergence with technology. In the early days of the internet, most people used pseudonyms when creating profiles and accounts on forums and other communication platforms. And in so doing, creating an online and offline identity. In today’s world of mass media, and our incessant need to share both public and private events, on platforms that require your full name, those two identities are becoming more and more converged into one. The notion of a digital identity today is closely linked to your offline identity, in the way that they intersect on so many levels.
One issue they talk about concerning this, is the possibility of negative consequences or ramifications later in life, due to your activities online.
Now that we have social media, where you basically present yourself with full name and identity, its is easy to dig up information about you.
Say a future employer looks you up on social media, what will they find, and can it be used against you in a negative way. Can they choose not to hire you because several year ago, you made racist or sexist comments?

This again stresses the importance of teaching both parents and children of the fact that EVERYTHING YOU DO has consequences. Something people seem to forget once they get behind the screen and start typing.  Even if something does not have an immediate effect, it is fully plausible that it can later down the line.
I fully advocate the need for reflection and critical thinking, especially before posting something that can be linked to you online. I’m not saying that if your anonymous, you can and should post anything you like, I’m trying to communicate, that the consequence of such actions can inevitably come back and haunt you.
Danah also mentions that she sees the need for critical thinking, and I wholeheartedly agree with this sentiment.

In the final part of the interview, Krista and Danah talk about how they see the internet as in its infancy, and that from a cultural and technological stand, we are in the very beginning of the online life. It is also why its our job and duty to shape it. We need to be an active part in how we want our life online to evolve and grow, and how we would like society as a whole to be a part of this. And even though we are in its infancy, there are examples they talk about where this “Over socialization” that’s going on today has some rather unique consequences.
Danah mentions that there are more people chosing to live alone then at any other point in history, and that it is a result of the constant social interactions that go on in everyday life. The need to be alone for a time is making people chose to live alone, so that they can have a personal space, that is theirs and theirs alone.
I think its funny to think about this in context. That our creation of tools to help you be social and connected, is also creating a need to be alone. The more social and connected our society is becoming, the more the need to disconnect from it all appears. I think its ironic that the more connected we try to become, the more the need for anti-social spaces arise.

Those were my thoughts and reactions to the podcast, now over to the second part of this blog. My masters thesis.

I have finally decided what I want to write my thesis on and around! Go me!.
The topic I have chosen is The silent majority.
A short explanation of what the silent majority is, would be to say that it is everyone that use the internet to some extent, but chose not to participate on any meaningful level. An example with numbers provided from http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/ would be, that out of those 3,7 billion individual users, only 10-20% actually participate on a meaningful level. Contributing to the greater good in one way or another.
That would mean that the silent majority consists of close to 3 billion users.
Now when I say silent, I do NOT mean that they never participate. You can be on Facebook, have a twitter and instagram account, and be a member on several forums, and STILL be a part of the silent majority.
I will use myself as an example here, because until recently I have considered myself as a part of the silent majority.
I have a Facebook, I have a twitter account, and recently made a instagram account, do I use these actively? Yes I do, do I post anything contributing to the digital society in any way? Until last month, no, not all, as in I have not contributed to anything. Daily updates of your Facebook status, or a daily tweet about your coffee, or a instagram picture of said coffee does NOT count as contributing. Yes you are posting something, but you are still a part of the silent masses.
I am a Imgur and Reddit user aswell, I subscribe to a dozen or so sub-reddits, and I browse imgur several times a day. I have a total of 5 posts and 57 comments made on imgur over the span of almost 3 years.
I have a total of 0 posts on Reddit, and I`ve used that site for close to a decade, and been a member for close to 3.
I  have no way of counting sadly, but I`d wager that over the last 10 years, I have fewer then 100 comments online, that are NOT a part of social media.

To be a part of the vocal minority, you need to actively contribute. As in you need to be active on open forums or/and you need to participate in the creation and spreading of intellectual property, as in creating art, fan fiction or similar created products.
You need to use social media as platform for more than just connecting with friends. Using Twitter as a platform to share political or similar agendas. Using the # functionality to reach a broader target group then just your friends. Partaking in online events that is a part of something bigger, examples like #ferguson #IfIwasShoot comes to mind.
Using instagram as a platform for selling your life, as in photographers trying to become known, same for artists, or to use it as a tool for promoting your blog and such.
The vocal minority are those who are the most active in participatory culture, those that helped shape web sites like Reddit and Wikipedia or people who answers questionnaires on Amazon Turk. To be a part of the vocal minority, you need to participate and contribute ” to the greater good” so to speak. The greater good here, being the online community we all use and enjoy.

Now, do NOT mistake the silent majority as a group that does leave anything behind, or that they do not partake in the global online domain.
They are the absolute biggest contributor to making things to viral, they are the biggest contributor to data miners and they are the biggest contributor to information about digital medias. Videos that have gone viral and that are being shared beyond belief are the exception to the rule here, every once in a while, you can or will participate in one way or another. This would be the equivalent to someone speaking up in  class, even though they usually never talk. minuscule participation, sharing a video or picture or post, once or maybe twice year, does not make you a part of the vocal majority
EVERYTHING you do online leaves behind information. Even if you hide behind a VPN and use every imaginable tool to hide your presence online, you leave behind information. Though it can never be traced back to you, information about the web sites you visit is available. How long much time spent there, what links did you click, how many articles did you read, how many videos did you stream, what content you streamed, pictures opened…. The list is endless. You do not need to participate to leave behind information that can be used by someone. Everyone does this, the second they go online.

My focus in writing about the silent majority, will be to look at how we can turn them from silent to vocal, how we can turn your average user of the internet into a player in participatory culture. I would love to find ways to increase participation on all levels, and to debate whether of not this is a good thing. This is where biases comes into view. Cultural, environmental, racial etc, how would the internet change if we managed to increase participation on a global scale tenfold? If we could go from say 15 to 50% participation online, that would amount to more than a billion users, a utopian idea it seems, but even so, what would the results be?

I like to compare the internet to the sea, where the silent majority are the fish, the vocal minority are the sharks, the instances of things going viral are the whales and those who gather up all our information are the fishing boats. I think this comparison works well in how it categorizes us. Fish are abundant, they help shape the oceans, but they are anonymous and silent in their masses. The sharks are the apex predators, they shape everything around them, and they move and control  the masses of fish. The whales are so large that they are almost impossible to miss, just like anything that go viral, while the fishing boats cast their large nets to gather up as much information as possible, not caring if they catch fish, shark or whale.

Now that I`ve given you an idea of what I’m gonna write about, do you agree with what I say? Do you think my estimation of vocal/silent si way of? What way should it shift if that is the case? Or do you disagree completely with  the notion of being silent while being online, seeing how it’s quite contradictory to be online and active on social media while being seen as a silent agent?

Feel free to share your thoughts on this topic, as I would love to know what people think of this.


My thoughts on Participatory Culture in a Networked Era by Jenkins, Ito, & boyd, chapter 4 and 5

Right of the bat, I`m gonna start with quote Mimi Ito, ” I feel fortunate to have been trained by a brilliant group of educational ethnographers and cognitive scientists while these approaches began to be taken more seriously by the educational establishment.”
Cognitive scientists is the key word here!

I would LOVE to see a major work of scientific research done on cognitive mapping of children presented with computer learning and game learning. Getting images of the brain in action is becoming increasingly easy these days, and cognitive mapping has seen a large increase in popularity and uses over the last decade or so. My initial thoughts are that from a educational perspective, having solid evidence in form of MRI and FMRI images of a brain in a learning environment with and without digital aides. I am very curious to look at the results of such a possible research and the conclusions it would show, does children use more or less of their cognitive abilities when faced with learning through gaming or not? Scientists out there, get to friggin work, make this happen asap so that I can quench my curiosity on the matter.

brainscan

Further Ito mentions a research experiment concerning maths and the ability to put it to use in practical scenarios instead of abstract instances, using every day groceries as an example. The research she mentions concludes that people will have greater success of implementing maths in everyday scenarios instead of trivial calculations from a math book. To be honest, this is nothing new, and I`ll make a bold statement here; Everyone knows that “learn by doing” and using examples people can relate to always works better than random examples with little to no relation to those who are trying to solve it.
That is, everyone but those educational books you need for school ( at any level ). My personal experience is that those book used by the educational system are SHIT!. Yes, they provide everything you need to learn math, language etc etc, but they do it in such a bad and convoluted way, that it’s almost an embarrassment to the educational system. My feeling is that they literally shoot themselves in the foot by making educational tool so bad that it at times can have the opposite effect ( children with learning disabilities ).

It is almost as schools are afraid of using the tools at their disposal, talking here about computers and computer games and/or tablets. These are great tool if used properly. Yes they are expensive, and yes, schools are very poorly funded in comparison to what expectation we have to them. So its easy for me to sit here and say that schools need computer and tablets, and that they need to make them a part of their educational process. If it where up to me, then yes, schools would have these tools at their disposal, but sadly its up to the governments and their cohorts.

edu

The discussion in chapter 4, on participatory learning and education, and how to survive the information overload that exists on the internet is following the thread left by Rheingold ( who they also mention in their discussion ). I have already written about this in an earlier blog post, so I wont bother to write about it in detail again, so I`ll just make a quick remark.
Participatory learning and education is worth its weight in gold, its is an unpolished gem that need way more attention than its given in educational settings today. And concerning the information overload and how to handle it; Tune your crap detector and browse with a bit of scepticism.

Danah Boyd talks about “who`s controlling the public narrative”, meaning the internet and how anyone can contribute. There is moderators on most if not all message boards and websites that offer ways of communication ( twitter, instagram, youtube, etc ). There has to be, to prevent the publishing and sharing of illegal items that would see the website shut down. She also mentions how politicians and activists celebrate getting a number of followers, and how random unknown teen can get millions of view and shares for posting sexual or grotesque content. This is the “silent majority” at work. The unheard millions of internet consumers that don’t have an activist or political agenda, and who are more than likely more interested in viewing and possibly sharing a graphic image or video than doing the same with  a political message.

The silent majority I would say, consists of 70-80% of the world’s population, it is those who have an opinion, but chooses not to share it. The remaining 20-30% are those that are vocal, those that makes themselves seen and heard, both online and in general. Out of those you have the 5% that are the extremists, those who not only are incredibly vocal, but also aggressively active in a certain area. I’m here talking about the far right/left politicians, the religious extremists, the misogynist and femnaziz. Those who are really putting themselves out there.
The silent majority are those who agree with a lot, but never all of that wich is broadcasted by the those who are most vocal. I can use myself as an example here; I am all for the feminist agenda, and the LGBT rights movement. But you will never find me at a rally for anyone of them, or see me posting or sharing anything related to this. I personally find that like me, most people to some degree agree with me. Of course women should have equal right, equal pay and equal educational and political possibilities, and of course members of the LGBT community should NOT be persecuted or discriminated against. Most of us agree with this, but since we are the silent majority, you`ll not know this unless you ask.
The issue here is that those who are most vocal on these subjects, are to extreme, and they are pushing people away from their agenda by being to aggressive and to far left/right.

silent
Major digression from the topic here, sorry for that, but I feel that it is truly important that people understand and know of the term Silent majority, and what that entails.

So, back to point. Boyd writes a paragraph on the subject of people not knowing how or why algorithm work. The answer to this is quite simple, so simple in fact, that most academics do not see it as an answer. Can you guess it?
Answer: PEOPLE DONT CARE!
Most people don’t give a shit, really, they could not care less how google makes their search algorithms work, or how Facebook generates the information on your wall. “Dont know, dont care”. It is that simple, there is no nothing more to it. If it works, it works, why give it a second thought.

dontcare

She also states that information is power, I disagree. information is useless if you do not know how to use it. Information is nothing without the tools to employ it. Therefor the quote should read “Knowledge is power”. This is more true, because it implies that you have the knowledge to use information, and when you can use information correctly, you have power. Perhaps a bit harsh to critique this, but she writes an academic text, and she should be aware of this, and not mistake information for knowledge. Knowledge is information, but information is not knowledge.

slothledge

I’m realising now that I`ve only read the first 9 pages, and that I`m probably gonna write and rant on for pages and pages if Im gonna continue like this. So Im gonna end my blog post here, and save the rest of my thoughts for my class, so that we can have a fruitful discussion there aswell.

As always, feel free to leave comments if you have any.


Assortment of ideas for MA thesis

This weeks post will be a little different, instead of writing my thoughts on a reading,  I will rather write about my ideas for my masters thesis. Something in the realm of what I`d like to write about, what expectations I have, and just general ideas on the subject.

There are plenty of things I would like to write about, but I have to focus on my goal, which is to use my masters to get a job. Of course the best possible outcome would be to write just what I want, and then use that to land my dream job, but lets be real for a second, that will probably never happen. So instead I need to focus on areas that can lead to, or lead me towards getting a job.
I would love to work in the E-sports scene, one of my possible dream jobs, and I already wrote my bachelor thesis on E-sports, so I`ve already got a good understanding of what this topic entails. But the job marked within E-sports is limited, and since I have a wife and kid, Im locked to the Bergen area, so that narrows down my possibilities by a good margin.

A different theme I would love to work with, that I have some experience with, is User Experience and User interface, especially tailored towards the end user of a product. My background from digital culture from UiB, and the dfferent subjects taught there give me a distinct skillset that not many other have. Not only have I taken a course in User Experience, but I`ve also had courses in digital ethics and rhetorics. Something that is a bit more uncommon then UE education. Something in App development or web development would suite me just fine, and would also fit nicely with my background.

One idea that I`ve kind of dropped the more I thought of it, is writing my masters on the use of statistical analasys of Big Data withing the gaming community, and how stat-tracking now is a major thing in both balancing and promotion. The downside here is that it requires a good deal of maths, and a very mathematical approach to it, something I am severely lacking…

On a side note, I did really enjoy reading Rheingolds book NetSmart: how to thrive online. Which peaked my interest for writing about online precense and safety for both children, adults and parents. A sort of “Digital safety for dummies” if you would. Though I would like to make a point of it being key theories, and not spesific points, since they will cease to be relevant sooner then later. So with that in mind, I think that would be a nice thing to do aswell. Perhaps make it a sort of guide more then a rulebook.

Those are my main ideas for a MA thesis, atleast those I think I`d be able to actually find relevant information and write about.
What do you think would be a good MA thesis within the realm of digital Culture? Please comment if you have a gold nugget of an idea.


My thoughts on Howard Rheingold`s Net Smart: How to thrive online. Chapter 3-5.

This is a continuation on last weeks blog post, in which I wrote about my thoughts on Rheingold`s Net Smart, the opening pages and the first two chapters.
Since everything is connected, I will be blending aspects from chapter 3-5 as I write about them, you`ll just have to bear with me.
So without further ado, here are my thoughts, critique and opinion on the next 3 chapters.

Early in chapter 5, Rheingold writes ” Shirky points our that a small number of blogs are the most trafficked, and that most blogs have, on average, a small amount of traffic”
You dont need to be a expert to know this to be true, even with just a modicum of knowledge, its easy to see that the bigger the name, the more followers and readers you have.
This is true not only for Bloggers, but public profiles online in general, using platforms as Twitter, Instagram, YouTube etc.
Only a select few makes it out of the “muck” that is few followers, unless you somehow go viral. Which can happen, though in these times of complete media excess and overload, is harder and harder to achieve. The participatory culture, that is being online, is so immense, that to be noticed, you`ll either need a “small miracle” or you`ll need great amounts of time and dedication. Two great examples of “miracle” and dedication are Psy and his ridiculous success with the song Gangnam style, and the hard work and dedication of the YouTube channel ERB – Epic Rap Battles of History, who have had a steady increase of followers throughout their rise on social media, culminating now in tens of millions of views on their channel and their videos.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bZkp7q19f0 Psy
https://www.youtube.com/user/ERB

YouTube can be said to be one of the absolute biggest platforms for participatory culture today. A place where you can produce, share, “make it or break it”, discuss and comment within a given channel or to videos themselves.
The content of YouTube is as diverse as the users, ranging from children’s shows, to academia, from political debates to conspiracy theories, and it is open for anyone who logs in to participate as they like.

Another perfect example of what participatory culture is and can be, is Reddit. For those who are in the dark about what this site is. Google it!. You need Reddit in your life.
This is a copy/paste from the Wikipedia page concerning Reddit. “As of 2017, Reddit had 542 million monthly visitors (234 million unique users), ranking #4 most visited website in U.S. and #9 in the world.[5] Across 2015, Reddit saw 82.54 billion pageviews, 73.15 million submissions, 725.85 million comments, and 6.89 billion upvotes from its users.[6]
That is a whole lot of participating! I myself am a user of Reddit, and I use it mainly for updates on my favorite games and writers, as the Reddit community is astoundingly good at getting relevant information quickly. Reddit is also a notoriously popular place to post leaked information about upcoming games/movies and other popular themes.

What is fascinating about the participatory culture of Reddit, is that the participating happens in so-called Sub-reddits, groups or communities, if you will. There is no “posting on Reddit in general”, no single forum that everyone can read. Though most sub-reddits are open to the public, even if you are logged in or not. The sum of the whole is what makes Reddit so great, the sheer amount of participation is staggering.

Rheingold cites Henry Jenkins and his definition of participatory culture, and it is at this time ( 2017 ) no longer valid in my opinion.
“1. Relative low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement
2. Strong support for creating and sharing creations with others
3. Some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the  most experienced is passed down along to novices
4. members who believe that their contributions matter, and
5. Members who feel some degree of social connection with one another ( at the least, they care what other people think about what they have created )”

The problem these days is the anonymity provided to the users, and the indifference the distancing of sitting behind a computer offers its users. As the great ocean of “anonymity” has swept over the web, you are more likely to be trolled and shot down then to receive any form of validation for your troubles. Therefor I feel the definition should be changed to something more akin to;
1. No barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement
2. Close to no support for creating, and moderate support for sharing with others
3. The most experienced are probably the first to shoot you down, or critique you, their knowledge are their own, and you should learn by experience, not by being taught.
4. Members who believe that their contributions matter more than others, their contribution is the nugget of gold in the muddy waters.
5. Members feel a strong connection with one another in their mutual communities and they care greatly not to be ostracized from their respective groups or their position in it.

This definition goes for the whole of participatory culture, and will in the cases of closed networks, in the cases of academia and in minor sub cultures not be valid. In these minor and mostly unknown groups, it is all about lifting each other up and validate and even glorify participation.

What I really missed from my reading of chapter 3-5 was any sort of critique to and the consequences of participatory culture gone wrong. Which is has, in oh so many cases. The biggest danger of participatory culture is the major spread of miss-information, and arguments based on un-informed and personal beliefs. Blogs are the biggest sinner here, and in my personal opinion should be HEAVILY moderated in certain instances. Certain bloggers reach millions of followers, and the spreading of false or misguided information can have dire consequenses for those is affects. Examples are; The outing of the Nazis at the white supremacist rally.
Anita sarkeesian`s attack on a transgender journalist, whom she supposedly is all about protecting and respecting,  resulting in her doxxing and her life being unraveled.
The spread of alternative medicine, with potentially deadly outcomes, examples would be the “apricot pit” treatment for cancer, which causes cyanide poisoning. The complete and utter lack of source proofing from both blogger and reader, who seemingly have their crap detector turned off, or in the least not at all developed, in the case of children and teens.
A simple Norwegian example of this, conserving teens happened in 2006, when famous stylist Jan Thomas said he used hemorrhoid cream underneath his eyes to remove wrinkles.
http://www.vg.no/forbruker/helse/helse-og-medisin/bruker-hemoroidekrem-for-aa-pynte-paa-fjeset/a/132915/
Sorry for the Norwegian article, what is says is that in the days after his statement, the drug stores in all the major cities in Norway saw a major increase in the sale of hemorrhoid cream, and the teenage girls where lining up to purchase it in the hopes of preventing wrinkles.
Apothecaries and doctors alike went public and stated that one should NOT use the cream underneath the eyes, as the cream contains Cortisone, a dangerous substance that will if used over time severely thin and damage your skin, no such thing as a crap detector for the hordes of young girls that immediately rushed out to buy the cream.

Even Rheingold`s book itself can be used as an example of spreading miss-information, now bear with me, this is not an attack on the book, its content or quality, but an error is an error, no matter who makes it.
The part in question is as follows;

“As Shirky points our, before Flickr, nobody knew that a community could form around pictures of cats in sinks (and uncounted other categories).” This is wrong!

Even in a major academic publication, we have errors like that, which now will spread to anyone reading it, just like miss-information spreads on blogs. Flickr was neither first or the biggest. It is just an easy example to use, because more people have heard about it. Other notable sites, that predates Flickr by a digital millenia are Newgrounds.com a site that was active 9 years before Flickr and Deviant Art, 4 years before Flickr. These two pages are much less know, but they are most definitely formed communities around ” Cats in sinks” and other categories.

Another aspect of participatory culture that Rheingold is reluctant to touch upon, at least so far in my reading, is what information you leave behind, who has access to it and who can and will benefit from it. He writes “Playbor: do you know who profits from your participation”, and further continues with and example of websites donating food to charity, based on how many readers they have, and on how many clicks on the ads present on their site. This is a fair example, but it is, in my opinion, to small. What he should be talking about, is the bigger, or even the biggest picture. Data miners! Who profit from EVERYTHING you do online, no matter how small or mundane it seems, even just opening your browser gives off useful information.
Big data is the big picture here, and Big data is incredibly valuable to anyone with the smarts to use is properly, which is why data mining has become  a increasingly relevant issue online. Everything you do leaves behind information, not necessarily private information, like your name and address, though in some cases this aswell, but information such as, your habits online, what you click, what you read, for how long you stay on a website, or an article, how many websites you visit per session or day. The list goes on, everything you do from the second your computer goes online and you open your browser, leaves behind information that someone somewhere will find useful.

So… after reading my thoughts on chapter 3-5, do you agree with my thoughts, do you think im just a sceptic and a pessimist that just rants on about what it means to be online, or do you think that I am touching upon mostly unspoken subjects, that might need further inquiries? Feel free to let me know by commenting or leaving me a message.